Table 2 – GM crops that are under development for future production in Africa
|GM crop||Mode of Propagation||Mode of pollination||Agents of pollination||Agents of seed dispersal||Recommended Isolation distance (m) for pure seed production (1%)|
|Banana (Musa spp.) || underground stem (corm)|| cultivated bananas are sterile ||insects (but cultivated bananas are sterile)||none required, the flowers are sterile|
| Cassava, Manioc, Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)|| stem cuttings ||predominately cross-pollination, limited self-pollination in varieties with many branches||insects and wind ||insects and animal|| 30 1,2|
| Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) || Seed || predominately self-pollination || insects ||wind, , animals, and water || 8100 – 200 1,3 |
| Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)|| Seed || predominately self-pollination || insects || Dehiscent pods, ants, birds, and rodents
|| 501 |
| Maize/corn (Zea mays L.) ||Seed || cross-pollination || Wind ||animals
|| 2001,3 |
|Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. || Tubers || self- and cross-pollination || insects || || 201,4,5 |
| African rice (Oryza glaberrima) ||Seed || predominantly self-pollination
|| insects and wind || buried in soil, water and animals || 1003,6* |
| Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) || Seed|| predominately self-pollination
|| insect and wind || buried in soil, water and animals || 1003,6 |
| Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Merr.) || Seed || predominately self-pollination || wind || wind, water and animals
|| 200- 4003 |
| Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) || vine cuttings || predominately cross-pollination but rarely flower || insects || Birds and water
|| No report of pollen studies1,7 |
* based on Oryza sativa L. data.
1 Andersson, M.S. and Vicente, M.C. foreword by Ellstrand, N.C. (2010) Gene Flow between Crops and Their Wild Relatives. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Bartimore. Maryland
2 Halsey, M.E., Olsen, K.M., Taylor,N.J and Chavarriaga-Aguirre, P. (2008) Reproductive Biology of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Isolation of Experimental Field Trials. Crop Sci. 48:49–58 (2008). doi: 10.2135/cropsci2007.05.0279
3 OECD (2013) OECD Schemes for the Varietal Certification or the Control of Seed Moving in International Trade.
4 Conner, A.J., and Dale, P.J. (1996) Reconsideration of pollen dispersal data from field trials of transgenic potatoes. theor Appl Genet, 92: 505-508.
5 Conner, J. (2006) Biosafety Evaluation of transgenic Potatoes: Gene flow from transgenics Potatoes. International Symposium.
6 Messeguer, J., Fogher, C., Guiderdoni, E., Marfà, V., Català, M.M., Baldi, G. and Melé, E. (2001a) Field assessments of gene flow from transgenic to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) using a herbicide resistance gene as tracer marker. Theor Appl Genet. 103:1151–1159
7 Haberle, S.G., and Atkin, G. (2005) Needles in a haystack: searching for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the fossil pollen record. In: Ballard, C., P. Brown, R.M. Bourke and T. Harwood (eds.). The sweet potato in Oceania: a reappraisal. Ethnology Monograph 19, Oceania Monograph 56; Stucky, J.M., and R. Beckmann, 1982. Pollination biology, self-incompatibility, and sterility in Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Meyer (Convolvulaceae). American Journal of Botany, 69(6): 1022-1031.